Hydrothermal carbonization made by carbonSolutions: CS-HTC90™

  • Hydrothermal carbonization in only 90 minutes
  • Continuous process
  • 2-stage process with proprietary counter current reactor
  • carbonPure™ water treatment
  • High solids throughput
  • Biomass "omnivore"
  • Compact technology
  • No heat exchanger fouling
  • High energy efficiency due to optimized heat recovery


The HTC process starts with a mixing of biomass with water. We developed a dedicated solution that allows the processing of diverse biomass, including parallel treatment of biomass from different sources, into a thick, pumpable mash. This stage also includes a novel heat recovery system, allowing for pre-heating the mash using waste heat from the HTC plant.
The processed and pre-heated biomaterial is drawn of continuously and is pumped into the CS-HTC90™counter current reactor. The advantages are manifold: a continuous process allows for much tighter control of the process, smaller installations, better opportunities for heat recovery, smaller heat losses, no change-over times, minimized workload for the operator, a reduced risk of operating errors and many more. The specific construction of the reactor also avoids the problem of heat exchanger fouling encountered in conventional designs, which would severely interfere with a stable operation.

In the CS-HTC90™ reactor the biomass mash is rapidly heated to reaction temperature and is thus transferred into a reactive intermediate stage. The down the line carbonization reactor is of a relatively simple design. This multi-stage yields an optimized cost/use relation.
The product emitted from the carbonization reactor is a coal suspension, meaning fine coal particles dispersed in water. In contrast to the original biomass this suspension now can be dewatered mechanically to a wide extend, e.g. in a filter press. This results in filter cakes, containing only a small fraction of water. A subsequent drying now only requires an amount of heat which is only a small fraction of that required for drying the original biomass.
Due to the organic components still dissolved in the filtrate from the dewatering step, there is no way to simply dispose of this stream into a waste water treatment facility. Instead we treat it in the carbonPure™ process specially developed by carbonSolutions for that purpose.